ABU RAIHAN AL-BIRUNI. ( A.D.). Abu Raihan Mohammad Ibn Ahmad al-Biruni was one of the well-known figures associated with the court of King. celebrating the anniversary of Abu Raihan Al-Biruni, a Muslim scholar often regarded as one of the greatest scientists of the medieval Islamic. Abu Raihan al-Biruni () was an Iranian scholar and polymath from Khwarezm — a region which encompasses modern-day western.

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Even though Islam did influence his study, he did acknowledge the role of the elements. Little is known of his personal life, but what is known is mostly found through his writings rather than stories about him. Hindus considered Muslims violent and impure, and did not want to share anything with them. The stones adorning the hilt and scabbard of the sword have talismanic significance. He also wrote the Kitab-al-Saidanawhich is an extensive materia medica that combines the then existing Arabic knowledge on the subject with the Indian medicine.

Journal for the History of Astronomy.

Al-Biruni biography

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These descriptions are useful to today’s modern historians because they are able to use Biruni’s scholarship to locate certain destinations in modern-day India.

Nasr, “An introduction to Islamic cosmological doctrines: Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. Leonardo da Vinci, Italian: Al-Biruni’s and Gadamer’s “fusion of Horizons”.


Besides being a challenging mathematical problem, determining the direction of Mecca is a religious requirement for the performance of the ordained five daily prayers in Islam. The lack of description of battle and politics makes those parts of the picture completely lost. Biruni documented everything about India just as it happened. Mathematics in medieval Islam. Kathor Khiva[1] KhwarezmAfrighid dynasty modern-day Al-biduni.

His relatively minor works are only minor in size, for they are at least as sophisticated as his major works. He observed that the Indus valley must be considered as an ancient sea basin filled up with alluvials.

In Meri, Josef W. He was forty-four years old when he went on the journeys with Mahmud of Ghazni. In the latter work, for example, is the most elaborate treatment of the Jewish calendar —more extensive than any surviving medieval Hebrew source and much more scientifically reasoned than any other treatment that this calendar had al-birkni up to that time. However, he lived well into his seventies, and, since some of his surviving works are not mentioned in this index, the index is a partial list at best.


He carried on a lengthy correspondence al-birunj sometimes heated debate with Ibn Sinain which Biruni repeatedly attacks Aristotle’s celestial physics: Enter your log in email address and we’ll send you a link to reset your password. Like most scientists of the era, he was a polymath, excelling and writing about various topics from astrology and mathematics to geology and anthropology. Kitab al-Kimya Kitab al-Sab’een Picatrix. The Chronology of Ancient Nations: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

He learnt Hindu philosophy, mathematics, geography and religion from thre Pandits to whom he taught Greek and Arabic science and philosophy. Steel, wood, turquoise, coral, emerald, gold; Dimensions: His book the Kitab-al-Jamahir deals with the properties of various precious stones.

Ahmed, like modern anthropologists, he engaged in extensive participant observation with a given group of people, learnt their language and studied their primary texts, presenting his findings with objectivity and neutrality using cross-cultural comparisons. He was engaged in science at an early age, publishing his first book on raihsn when he was 22 years old.

It is generally accepted that he was Persian by origin, and spoke the Khwarizmian dialect Rahman, H. The blog is designed to be a place for the science community from the Middle East, or those interested in the region, to meet, discuss and learn.

Abu Arrayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni

He was also an avid scholar of religions and studied several different ones objectively. This section’s use of external links may not follow Wikipedia’s policies or guidelines.

Using a whole body of mathematical methods not only those inherited from the antique theory aabu ratios and infinitesimal techniques, but also the methods of the contemporary algebra and fine calculation techniquesMuslim scientists raised statics to a new, higher level. I shall place before the reader the theories of the Hindus exactly as they are, and I shall mention in connection with them similar theories rzihan the Greeks in order to show the relationship existing between them.


The classical works of al-Biruni and al-Khazini can by right be considered as the beginning of the application of experimental methods in medieval science. In his major extant astronomical work, the Mas’ud CanonBiruni utilizes his observational data to disprove Ptolemy’s immobile solar apogee.

His investigations included description of various monstrosities, including that known as “Siamese” twins. Biruni wrote most of his works in Arabic, as the scientific language of his age, however, his Persian version of the Al-Tafhim [55] is one of the most important of the early works of science in the Persian languageand is a rich source for Persian prose and lexicography. For example, he raised questions about the formation of mountains and explained the existence there of fossils by positing that Earth was once underwater.

We, too, have composed a book on the subject called Miftah-ilm-alhai’a Key to Astronomyin which we think we have surpassed our predecessors, if not in the words, at all events in the matter. Mathematics in the 10th century Uzbek culture In Uzbekistan: Babylonian astronomy Egyptian astronomy Hellenistic astronomy Indian astronomy. Ahmed concluded that Al-Biruni can be considered as the first Anthropologist, [46] however, others argue that he hardly can be considered an anthropologist in the conventional sense.

It was only hundreds of years later in the West, that his books became read and referenced again, especially his book on India which became relevant to the British Empire’s activity in India from the 17th century. American Federation of Astr. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Saljuq and Mongol Periods. Frederick 12 December His scientific method, taken together with that of other Muslim scien- tists, such as Ibn al-Haithamlaid down the early foundation of modern science.

His only other competing encyclopaedic work, in terms of depth and extent of coverage, is The Chronology of Ancient Nationswhich is devoted to a universal anthropological account of various cultures and which even records the lore of long-dead cultures or of other cultures that were about to disappear.

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