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The radius in such specimens is believed to be small enough that any smaller radius would result in notch strength essentially unchanged from an engineering viewpoint. N curves with knees.

### ASTM E – 13 – Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing

The result, sN, is given in Pa psi. As new specimens develop, they will be added to this listing. A group may comprise one or more specimens.

E force transducer—a device which indicates the applied force by means of an electrical voltage. E Caution is asgm in extending this concept to design. E tolerance interval—an interval computed so that it will include at least a stated percentage of the population with a stated probability.

E irregularity factor— in fatigue axtm, the ratio of the number of zero crossings with positive slope or mean crossings to the number of peaks or valleys in a given, force-time history. E physical crack extension, Da p [L]—an increase in physical crack size. E1283 crack size, a [L]—a lineal measure of a principal planar dimension of a crack.

Using the coordinates shown in Fig. E R-curve—a plot of crack-extension resistance as a function of stable crack extension, Dap or Dae. E environment chamber volume [L3]—in fatigue testing, that bulk volume surrounding a test specimen.

Also see crack length in the Description of Terms. E environment volume [L3]—in fatigue testing, the total volume immediately surrounding a test specimen plus that contained in astn circulating reservoir if applicable. One component is due to the variability of the test material. The parameter tt can be separated into hold and non-hold that is, steady and dynamic components: E tolerance level—the stated probability that the tolerance interval aztm at least the stated percentage of the population.

For most materials an operational, though arbitrary, de?

E 28 zero crossings—in fatigue loading, the number of times astj the force-time history crosses zero force level with a positive slope or negative slope, or both, as speci? EE signi?

## ASTM E1823 – 13

The second is an alphabetical listing of relevant abbreviations. For the standard specimens in Test Method Ethe constant-force-amplitude test will result 16 low point, Low—the point on the reloading portion of an unloading-reloading cycle where the force is one half the high point force see points labeled Low in Fig.

The effective unloading slope ratio is measured by performing unloadingreloading cycles during the test as indicated schematically in Fig. E fatigue loading—periodic, or not periodic,? Arabic numerals 1, 2, and 3 are used for the general case, and they represent opening, sliding, and tearing displacements, respectively. For small sample sizes, s underestimates the population standard deviation.

### ASTM E – 13 Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing

A strain gaged specimen is often used as a dynamometer. It is a point estimate of the percentage of the population between the same two stated values. The exact conversion factor is 4. E blunting line—in fracture testing, a line that approximates apparent crack advance due to crack-tip blunting in the absence of slow stable crack tearing.

For N, a log scale is commonly used. E E sample variance, s2—the sum of the squares of the differences between each observed value and the sample average divided by the sample size minus one.

Not applicable generally to anisotropic materials. KIvj relates to crack extension resistance with respect to a sporadically advancing crack. E crack size, a [L]—in Test Method Ethe physical crack size is represented as ap. Although crack-tip conditions can be a function of crack velocity, the steadystate crack-tip conditions for metals have appeared to be independent of the crack velocity within the range attained by the loading rates speci?

The other component is due to variability in the test method application. E sample median—the 1 e18233 value when all observed values in a sample are arranged in order of magnitude if an odd number of items units are tested or 2 the average of the two middle-most values if an even number of items units are tested.

This is designated the C-R orientation. E estimation—in statistical analysis, a procedure for making a statistical inference about the numerical values asrm one or more unknown population parameters from the observed values in a sample. E This value corresponds to P max. E minimum force, P min [F]—in fatigue, the lowest algebraic value of applied force in a cycle. In general, the curves E should not be extrapolated to other values of p.

These specimens are frequently tested at a mean stress of zero. Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at aastmfaxor service astm.

E environment temperature— in fatigue testing, the temperature of the bulk volume surrounding a test specimen. The extension stops when the applied displacement is held constant. The force transducer calibration may have been furnished by the machine manufacE turer or may have been developed by the user.

It is an estimate of the relationship between applied stress and the percentage of the population that would survive N cycles. In general, S-N curves should not be extrapolated beyond observed asgm values.