The bitter struggle that rolled back and forth across the North African desert was the first major Allied victory of the Second World War. ODAL!Music: ODAL!Video: channel/rfyxEnAH7Uy. North Africa campaigns, (–43), in World War II, series of battles for but significant events that bound the Axis Powers and culminated in a world war.

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The new attack, begun in the early hours of November 2, again bogged down in the minefields, and resistance proved tougher than expected. Information gleaned via British Ultra code-breaking intelligence proved critical to Allied success in North Africa.

Vichy France [nb 4] [ citation needed ] 1, dead; 1, wounded. Contact our editors with your feedback. Keep Exploring Britannica September 11 attacks. II Corps on the other, the Axis forces withdrew to Enfidaville.

This defeat in Africa afroca to all Italian colonies in Africa being captured.

On November 8,just four days after Rommel started his long withdrawal, the British and Americans had executed Operation Torch, the Northwest African landings. Intended to relieve the siege at Tobruk, this operation also failed. The Royal Navy, waiting in strength 1940–43, made sure that few Germans or Italians escaped to Sicily.

Eisenhower became supreme commander of all Allied forces in the Mediterranean west of Tripoli.

North African Campaign

axiw Arnim surrendered his forces on May 13, The loss of food supplies was an important factor in the spread of sickness among the troops; Rommel himself fell ill, and in September he was sent back to Europe to recover. On paper, at least, Italy enjoyed a considerable advantage over Britain in the Mediterranean theater of operations.


Vichy officially pursued a policy of armed neutrality and conducted military actions against armed incursions from Axis and Allied belligerents. The forward Allied force—now named Im Corps —adopted a defensive posture and over the coming months was built up, before having most of its veteran forces redeployed to Greece. Italian control of the airfield at Sidi Barrani, however, seriously reduced the operational reach of British air power and posed a threat to the Royal Navy in Alexandria.

Though isolated by land, Tobruk’s garrison continued to receive supplies and replacements, delivered by the Royal Navy at night.

The strike force, under Maj. The British fell back to defensive positions at Mersa Matruh, about miles inside Egypt.

North Africa campaigns

This article was written by David T. Meanwhile, a British supply convoy, code-named Tiger, made its way to North Africa carrying tanks asis 43 Hawker Hurricane fighters. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. After Gott was killed on August 7, when his transport was shot down en route to Cairo, Gen.

North African Campaign – Wikipedia

German minefields proved a greater obstacle than had been initially reckoned, and when daylight came on October 24, British tanks were still transiting the paths that had been cleared by engineers. Just a few weeks earlier, however, Adolf Hitler had decided to shore up the Italians in North Africa by committing German forces. Brevity was then followed up by a much larger-scale offensive, Operation Battleaxe.


When Benito Mussolini took Italy into the war, the Italian forces in North and East Africa were overwhelmingly superior in numbers to the scanty British forces opposing them.

Rommel, fprces had been promoted to field marshal for his success at Gazala, pursued.

Their africaa drive was reinforced by the motorized New Zealand Division and a fourth armoured brigade. By December 7, an overwhelmed Rommel was withdrawing his dangerously depleted forces. Auchinleck ordered the continuation of the offensive, and Cunningham was replaced by Gen.

Consequently, the landings met no practical opposition in Algiers, and the city was captured on the first day along with the entire Vichy African command.

North Africa campaigns | Battles, Combatants, & Significance |

The relatively unknown Lt. If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. Commanding the British was Gen.

1940-34 Rommel had been ordered to simply hold the line, an armoured reconnaissance soon became a full-fledged offensive from El Agheila in March Part of the reason the initial German attacks in March were so successful was that Ultra intercepts had informed Wavell that OKW had clearly directed Rommel not to take any offensive action, but to wait until he was further reinforced with the 15th Panzer Division in May.

Prior to launching his counterattack, Wavell wanted to gain control of Africw Pass.

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