Brahmagupta was an Ancient Indian astronomer and mathematician who lived from AD to AD. He was born in the city of Bhinmal in Northwest India. Brahmagupta, whose father was Jisnugupta, wrote important works on mathematics and astronomy. In particular he wrote Brahmasphutasiddhanta Ⓣ, in The field of mathematics is incomplete without the generous contribution of an Indian mathematician named, Brahmagupta. Besides being a great.

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Albert Einstein, German-born physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity and…. This section needs expansion with: Yugain Hindu cosmology, an age of humankind.

Number theory in the East. The mathematician Al-Khwarizmi — CE wrote a text called al-Jam wal-tafriq bi hisal-al-Hind Addition and Subtraction in Indian Arithmeticwhich was translated into Latin in the 13th century as Algorithmi de numero indorum.

Multiplication, evolution, and unknown quantities were represented by abbreviations of appropriate terms. This current system is based on the Hindu Arabic number system and first appeared in Brahmasphutasiddhanta. However, he lived and worked there for a good part of his life. In Brahmagupta devised and used a special case of the Newton—Stirling interpolation formula of the second-order to interpolate new values of the sine function from other values already tabulated.

Privacy Policy Manage Cookies. Little is known about the life of Bhaskara; I is appended to his name to distinguish him from a 12th-century Indian astronomer of the…. In chapter seven of his Brahmasphutasiddhantaentitled Lunar CrescentBrahmagupta rebuts the idea that the Moon is farther from the Earth than the Sun, an idea which had been suggested by Vedic scripture. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Brahmagupta gave the solution of the general linear mathematkcian in chapter eighteen of Brahmasphutasiddhanta.

The two [lower segments] of the two diagonals are two sides in a triangle; the base [of the quadrilateral is the base of the triangle].


Brahmagupta was an orthodox Hindu, and his religious views, particularly the Hindu yuga system of measuring the ages of mankind, influenced his work. Moreover, in a chapter titled Lunar Cresent he criticized the notion that the Moon is farther from the Earth than the Sun which was mentioned in Vedic scripture.

This text is a practical manual of Indian astronomy which is meant to guide students. Not much is known about his early life. Mathematics portal Astronomy portal Biography portal India portal. The height of a mountain multiplied by a given multiplier is the distance to a city; it is not erased.

The four fundamental operations addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division were known to many cultures before Brahmagupta. Babylonian mathematics Chinese mathematics Greek mathematics Islamic mathematics European mathematics. The illumination of the moon depends brahmagkpta the position and angle of Sunlight that hits the surface of the moon. As a young man he studied astronomy extensively.

He went on to solve systems of simultaneous indeterminate equations stating that the desired variable must first be isolated, and then the equation must be divided by the desired variable’s braymagupta. The city was a center of learning for mathematics and astronomy, and he flourished as an astronomer in the intellectual brahmabupta of the city.

To obtain a recurrence one has to know that a rectangle proportional to the original eventually recurs, a fact that was rigorously proved only in by Lagrange.

Brahmagupta – Mathematician Biography, Contributions and Facts

In addition to his work on solutions to general linear equations and quadratic equations, Brahmagupta went yet further by considering systems of simultaneous equations set of equations containing multiple variablesand solving quadratic equations with two unknowns, something which was not even considered in the West until a thousand years later, when Fermat was considering similar problems in There are numerous science historians who made testimony to his great scientific contribution.

The diameter and the square of the radius [each] multiplied by 3 are [respectively] the practical circumference and the area [of a circle].

In his work on arithmetic, Brahmagupta explained how to find the cube and cube-root of an integer and gave rules facilitating the computation of squares and square roots. Brahmagupta dedicated a substantial portion of his work to geometry and trigonometry. He essentially manipulated right triangles to produce isosceles triangles, scalene triangles, rectangles, isosceles trapezoids, isosceles trapezoids with three equal sides, and a scalene cyclic quadrilateral.


The square of the diagonal is diminished by the square of half the sum of the base and the top; the square-root is the perpendicular [altitudes]. Given the lengths of the sides of any cyclic quadrilateral, Brahmagupta gave an approximate and an exact formula for the figure’s area.

A positive divided by a positive or a negative divided by a negative is positive; a zero divided by a zero is zero; a positive divided by a negative is negative; a negative divided by a positive is [also] negative. Brahmagupta even attempted to write down these rather abstract concepts, using the initials of the names of colours to represent unknowns in his equations, one of the earliest intimations of what we now know as algebra.

In mathematics, his contribution to geometry was especially significant.


Its perpendicular is the lower portion of the [central] perpendicular; the upper portion of the [central] perpendicular is half of the sum of the [sides] perpendiculars diminished by the lower [portion of the central perpendicular]. When Sindh was conquered by Arabs, his work was translated into Arabic by an astronomer, Muhammad al-Fazari which led to the use of decimal number system in written discourse. The solution of the general Pell’s equation would have to wait for Bhaskara II in c.

Keep Exploring Britannica Albert Einstein. Expeditions were sent into Gurjaradesa. He also had a profound and direct influence on Islamic and Byzantine astronomy.

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