(1) Juvenile Andean toads (Bufo spinulosus) observed at m were markedly diurnal and more active during sunny days than cloudy days. (2) On a sunny. Reference for: Bufo spinulosus. Source: Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference, database (version 3). Acquired: Notes: Frost, Darrel R. Semiochemicals of Bufo spinulosus, the Andean toad Family: Bufonidae. Subfamily: Bufoninae. Genus: Bufo. Tribe: Author: Wiegmann.

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Considering the geographic variation in the digestive physiology of other ectotherms i. The Tukey test HSD was used to establish differences among samples. The volume of urine stored into the urinary bladder of toads varied diurnally; during basking in the morning hours most bladders contained large volumes of urine, whereas during the afternoon the bladders were mostly empty.

Water in the containers was changed every 72 h and then the containers were randomly rearranged. For the statistical analysis of the results, three-way ANOVAs were used with locality, temperature and diet as the predicting factors.

Once the larvae reached a Gosner stage between 21 and 23 they were randomly placed at a density of 15 individuals mL -1in plastic containers of a 1 L capacity and a photoperiod of 12O: Rhinella spinulosa Wiegmann Bufo spinulosus Wiegmann has an extended geographic distribution from the Peruvian-Bolivian highlands to the Chilean and Argentinean Andes Vellard Bufo spinulosus larvae were collected from four localities from the northern and central zones of Chile: Due to diets of highest nutritional quality generally produce an increase in the rates of growth and differentiation, it is assumed that the amount of energy and nutrients present in high quality foods would be better utilized by tadpoles.

Our results suggest that the effect of temperature on digestive processes is more relevant than its effect on transit time in the digestive tract.

Therefore, the inclusion of temperature in studies of dietary assimilation capacity is an important point, which up to date has been scarcely explored.

The helio-and thigmothermic behaviour of the Andean toad permits the maintenance of high core temperature during morning which probably increases the digestion rate and accelerate growth. Therefore, the explanations for the detected differences in size at metamorphosis of B.


The unexplained variance was probably due to evaporative cooling. We also predict that will exist differences in assimilation among larval as a function of geographic precedence.

The assimilation values for each treatment were calculated as an average of the percent assimilation obtained for each three samples and expressed as percent assimilation efficiency with a standard error. According that, the above conditions it seems no affect the response evaluated in our experiment. Ediciones Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Environmental spinilosus has traditionally been considered as one of the most relevant factors affecting the physiology of poikilotherms Rome et al. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies.

Bulletin of Marine Society Concerning larval stages Benavides described that Bufo spinulosus tadpoles from different geographic localities, exposed in laboratory to identical photoperiod, temperature and diet conditions, reach to different sizes at metamorphosis.

Environmental Biology of Fishes 5: In order to explore this possibility this effect, we performed a comparison of estimated marginal means of this interaction by locality, considering temperature and diet. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Although there is a lack of systematic studies on the larvae diet of this species, preliminary data from two localities Tatio and Farellones indicates that the larvae consume algae that are similar in total energy and total nitrogen content Benavides, unpublished data.

These results suggest that among populations of this species could be differences in some physiological attributes, and these differences possibly will determine the development and growth of the tadpoles and adults size in this species. Therefore, if the larvae from different studied localities consume equivalent diets, it would be reasonable to assume that their digestive biochemical processes are similar Toloza a.

We are currently performing research in order to elucidate the effects of geographic variation on life-history traits in this species.

Results showed that geographic origin did not byfo assimilation efficiency, while the relationship observed between temperature and diet quality was significant. Assimilation efficiency in Bufo spinulosus tadpoles Anura: Rhinella abei Rhinella achalensis Rhinella achavali Rhinella amabilis Rhinella amboroensis Rhinella arborescandens Rhinella arenarum Rhinella arunco Rhinella atacamensis Rhinella humboldti Rhinella bergi Rhinella chavin Rhinella cophotis Rhinella crucifer Rhinella diptycha Rhinella dorbignyi Rhinella fernandezae Rhinella fissipes Rhinella gallardoi Rhinella gnustae Rhinella granulosa Rhinella henseli Rhinella icterica Rhinella inca Rhinella jimi Rhinella justinianoi Rhinella lilyrodriguezae Rhinella nesiotes Rhinella ornata Rhinella poeppigii Rhinella pombali Rhinella pygmaea Rhinella quechua Rhinella rubescens Rhinella rubropunctata Rhinella rumbolli Rhinella spinulosa Rhinella schneideri Rhinella vellardi Rhinella veraguensis.


These authors propose also that local abiotic conditions, especially water temperature, could explain the adults morphological divergence observed in individuals from the Tatio population, which represents an extreme in the morphological variation observed for spunulosus species.

Frogs in the Rhinella genus.

Behavioural thermoregulation of the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus) at high altitudes.

We hypnotized that in B. American Journal of Physiology The HQD presented lower ash content 6. Assimilation efficiency reflects the capacity of an organism to metabolize bbufo nutrients present in ingested food and is bhfo important factor in its energy balance Calow Advances in Ecological Research Table 1Fig. We predict that tadpole feed with rich nutritional diet and growing at high temperature will show higher assimilation in comparison to tadpoles growing both a lower temperature and a nutritional quality diet.

For each temperature treatment and locality of origin, three replicates were used vufo each of two diet treatments: Mario Rosenmann for his permanent friendship and help. American Museum of Natural History. Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series Assimilation efficiency of Bufo spinulosus tadpoles of different geographic origin, maintained at two temperatures: You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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The differences in size at metamorphosis in B spinulosus populations of distinct geographic origin could not be explained by the existence of differences in physiologic digestive capacities. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 96A: Pablo Sabat ubfo three anonymous referees for their constructive suggestions to the former version of this manuscript. Changes in assimilation efficiency have been described in ectotherms, allowing them to utilize different types of foods more efficiently HornBenavides el al.

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