– An online study & reference for reserchers, students in botany with full reference on research institutes and scientific. Division Equisetophyta. Stanley L. Welsh. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum and Department of Botany and Range Science, Brigham Young. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; and Higgins, Larry C. ( ) “Division Equisetophyta,” Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs: Vol. 9, Article 7.
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Plant systematics, a phylogenetic approach.
Charophytes basal Qeuisetophyta Klebsormidiophyceae. This page was last edited on 28 Novemberat The origin of the land flora, a theory based upon the facts of alternation.
See also the list of plant orders. The horsetails civision their fossil relatives have long been recognized as distinct from other seedless vascular plants.
The Equisetales existed alongside the Sphenophyllalesbut diversified as that group disappeared into extinction, gradually dwindling in diversity to today’s single genus Equisetum. When ranked as a class, the group has been termed the Equisetopsida  or Sphenopsida.
Morphology and evolution of vascular plants 3rd ed.
Evolution of horsetails Equisetales within the major euphyllophyte clade Sphenopsida”. Articles with ‘species’ microformats All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Commons category link is on Wikidata.
This contrasts with the seed plants, which grow from an apical meristem – i. The extant horsetails represent a tiny fraction of Sphenophyte diversity in the past. When recognized as a separate division, the literature uses many possible names, including Arthrophyta,  Calamophyta, Sphenophyta,   or Equisetophyta. Morphology of vascular plants Lower Groups.
Archived from the original PDF on Other authors have regarded the same group as a class, either within a division consisting of the vascular plants or, more recently, within an expanded fern group. The biology and evolution of fossil plants.
A recent study by Elgorriaga et al. The Origin and early diversification of land plants: In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies. Developmental morphology and fuzziness of organ identities”.
American Journal of Botany. In extinct groups, further protection was afforded to the spores by the presence of whorls of bracts – big pointed microphylls protruding from the cone. The Sphenophytes comprise photosynthesising, “segmented”, hollow stems, sometimes filled with pith.
Botany/Equisetophyta – Wikibooks, open books for an open world
In the only extant genus Equisetumthese are small leaves microphylls with a singular vascular trace, fused into a sheath at each stem node.
The underground parts of the plants consist of jointed rhizomesfrom which roots diviion aerial axes emerge. Retrieved from ” https: These fivision comprise spirally arranged sporangiophoreswhich bear sporangia at their edges, and in extant sphenophytes cover the spores externally – like sacs hanging from an umbrella, with its handle embedded in the axis of the cone. Views Read Edit View history.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Cyanidiophyceae Porphyridiophyceae Compsopogonophyceae Stylonematophyceae Rhodellophyceae Bangiophyceae Florideophyceae. At the junction “node”, see diagram between each segment is a whorl of leaves. Sphenophyllales Archaeocalamitaceae Calamitaceae, A. There were three orders of Equisetopsid; the Pseudobornialeswhich first appeared in the duvision Devonian.
All extant species of Equisetum are herbaceous, and have lost the ability to produce secondary growth. Sphenophytes bear cones technically strobilising. Paleobotany and the evolution of plants 2nd ed. Equisetopsidaor Sphenopsidais a class of vascular plants with a fossil record going back to the Devonian. The vascular bundles trifurcate at the nodes, with the central branch becoming the vein of a microphyll, and the other two moving left and right to merge with the new branches of their neighbours.
The organisms first appear in the fossil record during the late Devonian,  a time when land plants were undergoing a rapid diversification, with roots, seeds and leaves having only just evolved.
Similar spaces, the vallecular canals are formed in the cortex.