Electroretinography measures the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the photoreceptors (rods and cones), inner retinal cells. Basic mechanisms of electrical field generation in the tissue. Recording protocols Electroretinography (ERG) alone does not give you necessarily a diagnosis. Electroretinogram: An electrical diagnostic test of retinal function in situ. Electro – part Show you the basic clinical test; Show some research examples. The Eye .

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The data in Fig.

After TTX, the slectroretinogram was slightly reduced but was mainly delayed, indicating the removal of a fast component. In contrast, lateral currents will cancel each other because the retinal lateral arrangement is completely symmetrical. ERGs recording from the skate. Comparison of the waveforms of the ON bipolar neuron and the b-wave of the electroretinogram.


For the fraction of the unit of energy erg, see micro-erg. Oscillatory potentials OP are high-frequency, low-amplitude wavelets on the ascending limb of the b-wave with a frequency of about to Hz. The b-wave is basis eliminated when the blood flow through the central retinal artery is blocked either intentionally in laboratory animals 1531 or in human patients Figure 18 Spectral sensitivity of rod vision purple circles and cone vision red squares.

Push-pull model of electrodetinogram primate photopic electroretinogram: Correspondences in the behavior of the electroretinogram and of the potentials evoked at the visual cortex. Clinically used mainly by ophthalmologists and optometriststhe electroretinogram ERG is used for the diagnosis of various retinal diseases.


The a-wave and b-wave are followed by the slow, corneal-positive c-wave. Enucleation of the eye. Electroretinoggram amplitude of the ERP depends directly upon stimulus intensity and the concentration of visual pigment in the outer segments of the photoreceptors.

Electroretinography – Wikipedia

The full-field ERG Ganzfeld; ffERG measures the stimulation of the entire retina with a flashlight source under dark-adapted scotopic and light-adapted photopic types of retinal adaptation.

The a-wave is used as bawics independent variable and is used together with the normal b-wave: The c-wave itself is a manifestation of the change in the trans-epithelial potential. Berson EL, Howard J. Fluorescein angiography Fundus photography Corneal topography Optical coherence tomography Electrodiagnosis: The pigment epithelium cells are functionally asymmetrical cells with their basal membrane toward the choroid less permeable to potassium ions than the apical membrane retinal side.

Relationships between the electroretinogram a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potentials basivs their application to clinical diagnosis.

Current source-density analysis of light-evoked field potentials in rabbit retina. The CSNB patient is characterized by subnormal b-wave ratio, in agreement with the known defect in synaptic transmission from rods to bipolar cells. It was assumed that the origin of potassium increases in the outer plexiform layer was bipolar cells, most specifically ON-center bipolar cells that were depolarized by light Epectroretinogram intensities were used covering a range of 4 log units.

A modified ERG technique and the results obtained for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa.

Temporal aspects of the electroretinogram in sector retinitis pigmentosa. Sensitivity and kinetics of mouse rod flash responses determined in vivo from paired-flash electroretinograms. The properties and nature of the R membrane of the frog’s eye. The most important information on the origin of these waves was obtained from ERG recordings with intra-retinal microelectrodes Evidently, direct neuronal contributions cause the M-waves, and the major contribution is to the OFF wave From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


The red light stimulus produces an ERG response composed of two parts: Current source-density analysis of data like these Fig.


The rod and cone photoreceptor function responses can be separated using a variety of ERG techniques. General properties of the response.

These ERG responses were recorded in a volunteer eleectroretinogram the dark-adapted state using dim blue or bright red light stimuli. The most sensitive system under particular conditions is the one that determines vision. These studies suggested the photoreceptor layer as the origin of the fast P-III wave.

In patients, these parameters provide quantitative assessment of retinal function electrorteinogram the progress of retinal diseases and the success of treatment Because APB-sensitive metabotropic glutamate receptors are found only in ON-center bipolar cells 51this finding constitutes a clear indication of the involvement of these bipolar cells in the generation of the b-wave. Bbasics fact, any procedure that blocks synaptic transmission from the photoreceptors, such as superfusion with cobalt ions or with high magnesium, low calcium solutions, will eliminate the ERG b-wave 2029 Furthermore, it was shown that carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, who had no visual defects, could be identified by their reduced ERP recordings

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