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301 Circuits (300 Series) by Elektor Electronics Paperback Book The Fast
Mains voltages No mains power line volt- ages are listed in Elektor circuits. The circuit consists simply of an op-amp connec- ted as a voltage follower whose quiescent output voltage can be set to any desired level within the output range of the op-amp.
The actual oscillator is built round FET Tl. This can be done with a pair of diodes, as shown In figure 2a, or by double-pole switching, as shown In figure 2b.
P 2 is used to adjust the gain of the linyting amplifier so that limiting just occurs with the smallest input signal, this avoiding limiting caused by extraneous noises. The original tape monitor switch if fitted can be discarded and replaced by S2, while an extra hole must be drilled in the front panel for S3. To minimise clock noise the outputs from the fi- nal and penultimate stages of the 1C are summed by R7, R8 and P2, However, if the circuit is to be used with the minimum clock frequency then clock noise will still be audible, and the lowpass filter circuit shown in figure 2 should be connec- ted to the output.
Circuits ( Series) by Elektor Electronics Paperback Book The Fast | eBay
The linear- ity of the converter IC is about 1 so that a reasonably good multimeter will enable quite ac- curate frequency measurements to be made. A lowpass filter built around IC1 removes any clock frequency components from the output.
However, the bottom end of R4 is returned to the output of IC1and as the voltage across Cl rises so does the output volt- age and hence the charging voltage applied to elektof output pulses.
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An example of 4 random voltage levels displayed simultaneously on the ‘scope.
Elektor – 301 Circuits
This can be done quite simply by subtracting the original pulse width from 3 ms in order to obtain its counterpart in the opposite direction. D1 and D2 elektod included to stabilise the reference voltage.
U, not V The international letter sym- bol ‘U ‘ for voltage is often 3011 instead of the ambiguous ‘V’. FSK modem Voltage trend meter. The finished circuit when moun- ted on a board occupies very little space. Often the result is that the model builder has to tamper with the delicate mech- 25 1 Figure 1.
Elektor – Circuits : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive
If a moving coil microphone capsule is used then Rl, R3 and C3 may be omitted. The zener voltage can then be measured by connecting a multimeter across it as shown. Although it is in fact available, the crystal 2.
Both Valvo and Murata ultrasonic transducers are suitable for the transmitter and receiver. A voltage between these two is referred to as an undefined logic level, CMOS logic is capable of operating over a much wider supply range than TTL, typi- cally 3 – 18 V.
Borgman TO Car rip-off protection Thefts from circiuts of valuable accessories such as spotlamps and foglamps are on the increase. The clock frequency, cigcuits hence the speed of the running light, can be altered by means of PL R The ac- companying figure shows a circuit diagram of a simple and reliable FSK modulator which has the advantage of requiring no calibration.
The preamplifier itself consists of a two stage amplifier T! Automatic mono stereo switch. This in turn results in a gradual change in the triggering angle of the triac, caus- ing the lamp La to flicker. This will usually be lower than the circuifs volts required by the rest of the circuit, so the voltage is dropped by RS and decoupled by C3.
N1 and N2 are Schmitt triggers connected to form a monostab ie multivibrator with a period of about 15 ms. Note that this only applies once the circuit has reached equilibrium. Applying a logic T 1 to the R input will reverse the procedure and reset the flip-flop. The circuit board is extremely compact, and the microphone capsule, board, and a small 9 V battery can ciecuits be fitted into a length of plastic pipe or aluminium tubing.
The Table lists frequency ranges for a few capacitor values. In this circuit the trigger pulses are pro- vided by a timer connected as an astable multivibrator, but other trigger sources may be used depending on the application. This produces a train of short pulses from the squarewave input signal and these are fed to an audio amplifier comprising T1 and T2.
The zener tester described in this article feeds a known, constant current through the zener. A constant current of – thus flows through R2.
However, if a pushbutton is held down the output of N5 will remain high, charging C3 through R3.
Preamplifier circuit The complete circuit of the microphone pre- amplifier is given in figure L If an electret microphone capsule is used, the built-in FET buffer will require a DC power supply.