Variety Eucheuma denticulatum var. endong Trono & Ganzon-Fortes, Environment. marine. Original description. Not documented. Descriptive notes. Eucheuma denticulatum (Burm.f.) Collins & Herv Indonesia: agar-agar, agar besar (common names for all Eucheuma and Kappaphycus spp.). Fig. 1. Eucheuma denticulatum branch showing the cylindrical axis with rings of spinous primary initially-determinate branches, some of which have become.

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Added to this, one has no way of correcting the market chain for farmer, consolidator and extractor effort and these elements in themselves, have few seasonal constraints.

Yields as high as 74 spinosum to cottonii dry tons per hectare per year have been verbally reported. Yet these relationships are important for farm production. Washing in freshwater has no added value and in most cases reduces the quality of carrageenan. It appears to be essential for such an environment to have water movement so strong near the sedimentary bottom that, at peak intensities, the seaweed would be washed away if they were not attached.

It is Figure 3 the smallest of the three, and the fronds are apically flat and pliable. Maximum diameter microns. The farms are on reef flats or other horizontal bottoms near extreme low-water level.

Eucheuma denticulatum (PROSEA) – PlantUse English

Spinosum has many tips at right angles eucheumq the stems on which they are borne and is often seen with apical attachments to a wide range of objects including other Eucheuma ejcheuma.

In most cases the affected parts decay, leading to fragmentation and losses. Earlier, when the crops were nearly all coming from Indonesia, the wild crop harvesting was not nearly as intense and apparently at most places well below the level of maximum sustained yield.


None of these appears to be superior from either the farm production or gel extraction points of view. Because of the differences in post-harvest treatment washing in freshwater is conditional for use as food and detrimental to carrageenan quality farmers determine euchsuma part of the crop is available for each commodity.

The production and use of Eucheuma

The present study reports the daily growth rates of K. The floating cage method is currently the best solution to avoid grazing and thereby improve production. Lamouroux Chondria spinosa C. Only the latter is predominantly from wild crops. Cottonii thalli exposed to air tend to eucheua “heads,” or become prostrate and dorsiventrally flattened.

Strain selection in Kappahycus alvarezii var. Eucheuma was first distinguished as a genus and named by J. Productivity can be particularly high where there is freshwater run-off from land during the wet season. Two of the best reports of field observations are Lim et al.

Initially the buying stations merely dried the seaweed and transported eucbeuma the relatively long distance for individual farmers to the main consolidation areas. Among the species originally included in Eucheuma by J. Their molecular weights may be as high asBotanica Marina 57 3: Carbon assimilation of Eucheuma denticulatum. For these reasons, as in terrestrial agronomy, farming is done only on fiat places.

Castle, The industrial development of farmed marine algae: Entire thalli may become affected. Norris, Eucheuma species Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta that are major sources of carrageenan. The optimal growth rate is about 3. In the Philippines, a good temperature for the growth of K. In Hawaii it has been effectively prevented in the past by the classification of all sub-tidal land as conservation, a designation that prevents its economic development. Farming routines soon result in very uniform populations.

Water motion especially is a factor that must be taken into account in selecting sites. The heterospinous long-spined “poisonous” sea urchins, usually Echinothrix or Diademaare notorious pests.


The growth of thalli of E.

The first level of sophistication might be a container in which to accumulate the Eucheuma as it is picked. A new approach for U. It can be applied in the control of heavy metal pollution by Pb and Cd, since this alga can accumulate these metals. In time the pit surfaces become covered by regenerated cortex and are then the same color and nature as the adjacent natural cortex.

The more sophisticated drying is on slatted bamboo decks surrounding farm houses erected at the farm sites. Fortunately their populations are usually downstream on falling tides from the best farm areas.

Setting and planting of monofilament lines 4 hours low tide working time per day. Eucheuma is now being commercially produced in the far western Pacific.

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In serious infections there can be at least one of these sea urchins developing to adulthood in almost each Eucheuma fenticulatum. Key references Braune, W. Thus, despite the published lists of capital costs usually stated for a hectare e. Culture of Eucheuma cottonii and Eucheuma spinosum in Indonesia.

Water motion tends to move the thalli about and, especially when they are large, this can cause branches to become abraded or break off entirely and be washed away. It has not been studied in Eucheuma. Harvest optimization of dentichlatum Kappaphycus species from the Philippines.

The similarly essential biological factors are considered in Section 5.

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