This image is a work of a U.S. military or Department of Defense employee, taken or made as part of that person’s official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal. This page contains the US Army Field Manual on Survivability. FM Survivability on the modern battlefield, then, depends on progressive development of fighting and protective positions. That is, the field survivability.

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Aircraft is dispersed and parapets or walls are constructed when possible. Personnel in open emplacements or nonprotected vehicles must use proper chemical cm clothing and masks to avoid chemical vapors and biological aerosols. Appendix D of this manual contains additional information on camouflage. Engineer support isrsqwired for fabrication arc installation. Descriptions and capabilities of US survivability equipment are given in appendix A.

Wall Sloping The rm for revetment is sometimes avoided or postponed by sloping the walls of the excavation. After any penetration is achieved, Threat doctrine calls for an aggressive pursuit and drive into the enemy rear area. Activities in the defense include constructing protective positions for command and control artillery, air defense, and critical equipment and supplies. When the terrain is not suitable for tracked vehicles or visibility is severely restricted, mechanized infantry may have to fight dismounted without the support of APCs or IFVs.

FM 5-103 Survivability

For example, the complete fighting position for survivabiility tank requires the construction of a hull defilade, turret defilade, concealed access ramp or route, and hide location all within the same fighting position.

A coordinated site plan and list of priorities for transportation and construction are prepared and constantly updated. Consideration is usually given to observation from the air.

Aircraft logistics facilities, including FARPs and maintenance facilities, require additional protective construction.

Charges are not placed closer than the borehole depth from the desired edge, and not farther than twice the borehole depth apart. In the tunnel system shown, the soil was generally very hard and only the entrances were timbered. Protection for personnel organic survivabulity medical companies is provided by individual and crew-served weapons positions.


Ideally, this protection is provided by natural cover. When the position diameter does not exceed twice the borehole depth, a single charge placed at the center of the position is enough.

The supplied u ni. High Explosive High explosive rounds include high explosive antitank HEAT sutvivability, recoilless rifle rounds, and antitank rockets. The levels and figures developed in the table are usually used by the maneuver commander in developing priorities, survivabiltiy by the engineer in advising the commander on survivability workloads.

The pulse also damages vulnerable electrical and electronic equipment at ranges up 5-013 5 kilometers for a kiloton surface burst, and hundreds of kilometers for a similar high-altitude burst. When forced to fight dismounted, such units need support by fire from weapons on board their APCs or infantry fighting vehicles IFVs.

The survivability planning process is completed when the survivability estimates and plans are combined with those for mobility, countermobility, and general engineering.

Positions are located to direct the runoff water into natural drainage lines. The larger the open excavation, the less the protection from artillery. The portion is survivabilitu leged wilh natural uvgatsticn a-f earno uflage netting. If available, boards or planks are used instead of poles because of quick installation. The figure below shows the relationship between dose of nuclear radiation and distance from ground zero for a 1-kiloton weapon.

FM – Survivability –

These triggering screens detonate ut do not defeat fragments from these rom fragments is still necessary for a table below lists required thicknesses for defeat fragments if the triggering screen structure. Sruvivability third table is converting dimensioned to round timber. Then, the Maximum Span table shows that support of the Vk feet of cover using 2 by 4 roof stringers over a 4-foot span requires inch center-to-center spacing of the 2 by 4s.

As a work of the U. Time available is considered. Several layers of irregularly-shaped rock can change the angle of penetration.


Prefabrication of bunker survivaability affords rapid construction and placement flexibility. This often leaves encircled and bypassed units for follow-on echelon forces to destroy. Its firepower, protection from enemy fire, and speed create the shock effect necessary to disrupt the enemy’s operations. Phase III is usually a continuous process, involving constant improvement and maintenance. Under all climatic conditions, at least 2 years with no visible deterior style cotton bags deteriorate much sooner sandbags is prolonged by filling them wit earth and portland cement, normally in th cement to 10 parts of dry earth.

See Field Manuals FMs, and for more detailed information. Military intelligence enemy activity, terrain, weather, and weapon types. These formations are initially dispersed to limit nuclear destruction, but are concentrated enough to meet offensive norms for attack. In organizations without a staff engineer, the operations officer performs the analysis and formulates survivability plans. If shelters and bunkers are properly constructed with appropriate collective protection equipment, they can serve as protection against chemical and biological agents.

Mission and commander’s guidance are received. The Enemy The maneuver commander and engineer must fully understand the threat to the force.

From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. As countermobility activities are completed, engineers survivvability help improve those survivability positions.


Above ground shelters are used when water levels are close to the ground surface or when the ground is so hard that cm a below ground shelter is impractical. Counterfire from enemy artillery is the most frequent threat to artillery units. Agents do not destroy suevivability and structures, but make them unusable for periods of time because of chemical contaminant absorption.

A test hole is detonated to check the accuracy of the table in the specific soil condition.

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