In this paper we survey the literature on the Black-Litterman model. . survey can be found at Black-Litterman Portfolio Construction: An Application using MatLab. Technical Report at: [Accessed The Black-Litterman model. Christopher Øiestad Syvertsen. Supervisor. Post doc Trygve Kastberg Nilssen. This Masters Thesis is carried out as a part of the.

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The Bayesian expression of the model is the canonical model presented by Black and Litterman, He and Litterman and Litterman et al, For example, a globally invested pension fund must choose how much to allocate to each major country or region.

Description of the various attributes in the table Bayes – the authors use a Bayesian interpretation of the model expressing uncertainty in the prior and in their estimates. An implementation of the Black-Litterman model in python and the worked example from the He and Litterman paper Updated Jun 22 From this, the Black—Litterman method computes the desired mean-variance efficient asset allocation. No means the author uses a non-Bayesian or frequentist approach to the model. It seeks to overcome problems that institutional investors have litternan in applying modern portfolio theory in practice.

For a more thorough discussion blacck my paper on the Black-Litterman model. When you want to dig deeper into the model, papers bpacklitterman all the details you will need. This website is provided “as is” without any representations or warranties, expres or implied.

The long term goal is to duplicate the model used by Black and Litterman in their initial paper. New paper focusing on Tau and if you really need it Updated 1 November The model starts with the equilibrium assumption that the asset allocation of a representative agent should be proportional to the market values of the available assets, and then modifies that to take into account the orf i.


Asset allocation is the decision faced by an investor who must choose how to allocate their portfolio across a few say six to twenty asset classes. A new implementation of the Black-Litterman model in Excel is available on the implementations page.

Black–Litterman model – Wikipedia

This list is not complete, though I expect to continually add information to it as time is available. I’ve added the readling list as a list of papers which I am reading, or have recently found which are relevant to the Black-Litterman model, or to the topic of asset allocation. Over time we expect to enrich the information available on this site, and to continue to add links to other interesting external resources. Michaud et al No Yes Provides arguments against using hybird and alternative variants of the model.

All content provided on this site is for informational purposes only. Retrieved from ” https: This site provides a source of information on the Black-Litterman Model for estimating returns and covariances for input to optimization models.

At the highest level we can separate the expression of the model used into Bayesian and non-Bayesian. The opinions expressed on this website are my own and not those of my employer. An excel spreadsheet showing the example worked in the He and Litterman paper Updated Jun 26 For more details on the Black-Litterman Model, you might find the discussion of Tau useful as it provides some background on the confusing parameter Tau and describes how it can be used, or not depending on how you use the model.


The author’s methods section has been updated with a new taxonomy of the model, and many papers have been added. This website is provided “as is” without any representations or warranties, expres or implied.

In principle Modern Portfolio Theory the mean-variance approach of Markowitz offers a solution to this problem once the expected returns and covariances of the assets are known.

Additional Resources Resources have now been moved into seperate pages for paperstheses and implementations in order to keep the front page a bit more clean. Provides arguments against using hybird and alternative variants of the model.

Black–Litterman model

I have some ways to go before I can work a 7 country-two asset example. If you just want to get wdw the details and write some code, this is the quickest way. There is now also an excel spreadsheet with the He and Litterman example worked. While Modern Portfolio Theory is an important theoretical advance, its application backlitterman universally encountered a problem: This table is not meant to be complete, but to be a summary of important papers on the model.

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