A. Furier (ed.), Kaukaz w dobie globalizacji, Poznań , p. 14 A. Lemieszonek, op. cit.; A. Myśliwy, op. cit., p. Kaukaz Południowy w polskiej polityce zagranicznej 2 5 7 C z. .. pozarządowych w regionie Kaukazu, [ w: ] Kaukaz w dobie globalizacji, A. F u r i e r (r e d.). Main themes of BST: 1. Languages, literature and societies in the process of transformation in Africa. 2. Research on the cultures, literature and languages of.
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Isolated studies of international mobility conducted in the late s suggest that many households engaging e this circular migration already had migration experience and that the money earned abroad was an important part of their budgets.
Economic Forum of Young Leaders
If we compare the first years after the Second World War with the followingwe can see that the young and naturally relatively mobile labour force glbalizacji significantly less prone to migrate. The short trips, with their specialised character and their purely financial purpose, were only possible in the context of mass and poorly regulated trans-border movements which emerged in Because of that, we can assume that we are justified in applying the model of mobility transition, particularly the part that describes migration from rural to urban areas, to interpret the phenomenon in Poland.
At the beginning of the s, migration from rural areas and e towns to cities, as a mass phenomenon, was finally replaced kaykaz circular movements from rural areas and small towns to cities and back; from the late s onwards, the latter were in turn increasingly supplanted by growing globalisacji circularity. For example, they could permit themselves to make less effort, be less productive, less disciplined, and less loyal towards their employer than other employees. The above discussion is based on the premise that people who left Poland for a short time to earn money in the s and s, and those who circulated between rural and industrial areas in the s, had many related or even identical characteristics.
In-depth studies on migration in Central and Eastern Europe: Neuberger edsInternal Migration. International Migration in the Early s. The American Economic Review 75 2: And under what personal, social and market globalzacji is that an optimal labour market choice?
Demographic processes and growing importance of Asian and Latin American immigrants will make weaker the traditional ties with Europe which have been created by mass migrations from Europe during previous centuries. In towns, the adopted strategy required considerable capital expenditures in relation to labour resources Ofer Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie 94 5: The diverse institutional globaliazcji were hypothesized to add explanatory power to the various post-industrial self-employment trajectories by implying different opportunity structures for immigrant and local entrepreneurs see also: At a cautious estimate, by the beginning of the s ca people commuted to work, and the number kept rising until the beginning of the s.
These close ethnic ties also enable the minority to gain an edge in business operations by means of self-exploitation — based on mutual trust, within-group hiring and business partnerships.
Kaukaz w dobie globalizacji
New technologies were introduced, and more was invested in the production of consumer goods, including those requiring a high degree of processing. It follows that if labour market discrimination is in place, but one does have access to some resources, self-employment may be the only feasible alternative.
CMR Working Papers 43 However, they lived in rural areas, on their own family farms, where they helped around as well — after their regular hours in the city, on their free days, and during holidays or leaves of absence, not always acquired legally. They do not belong to any of the main strata of the emerging society; their occupational status is relatively very low; and they often do not have stable employment, are unemployed or indeed economically inactive. The former appeared e. Regard for the goods ethnic economies specialize in is therefore crucial to understand how they operate and might be the key to explaining the contradicting findings.
In his pioneering research on entrepreneurship Cantillon observed that a number of people in the economy perform arbitrage — buy cheap and sell expensive.
The scale and concentration of the investments were usually large, and moreover localised in a few industrial centres and urban areas.
In the basic macroeconomic indicators of the Belarusian economy clearly proved that the Belarusian government failed to reverse the negative trends which occurred in The discrimination hypothesis will be discussed in one of the following subsections of this paper.
At the same time, parallel but informal social structures and institutions flourished.
Subjects Globalization — Caucasus. The New Economics of Kauakz Migration. Work, Employment and Society 10 2: He insists on putting greater emphasis not only on the structural conditions, but also on the objectives and strategies of action-oriented agents.
A Test of the Blocked Mobility Hypothesis. CMR Working Papers 45 Kaaukaz the time, labour demand in cities was growing, and by far exceeded supply. One could argue that incomplete migration does not differ at all from international circularity or pendular movements, as this type of mobility is typically defined. Chapman, Prothero a and Prothero, Chapman In case of ethnic minorities the opposite is true — the employers outnumber their employees, as many people are actually self-employed and those who can afford to hire workers do that on a very small scale.
Another part of the article concerns the policy of Russia in Belarus in order to keep it in the zone of influence, which is control of its economy and the support of President Alexander Lukashenko in the fight against the democratic opposition, including the Union of Poles in Belarus in In his opinion, inthere were 1 commuters.
It will strongly influence the demographic, economic and political situation of the Union. The empirical studies on immigrant self-employment suffer from the same definitional ambiguities, as theoretical considerations.
Over time, the flow from rural areas to industrial centres gained in significance. Please create a new list with a new name; move some items to a new or existing list; or delete some items.